IMAGE: The evolution of physical morphogenesis: cell-like structures change from all blue, to red and blue, to structures of different sizes. (Credit: Fraden lab/Brandeis)
EXPERIMENTS VERIFY ALAN TURING’S THEORY OF MORPHOGENESIS
British mathematician Alan Turing (1912-1954) is known for his ground-breaking work in computer science and for his role in breaking the secret codes used by Germany in World War II.
In 1952, in his only paper on biology, Turing proposed a theory of biological morphogenesis through chemistry; describing how identical cells differentiate into an organism with its own shape.
60 years after Turing’s death, researchers from Brandeis University and the University of Pittsburgh have provided experimental evidence that validates Turing’s theory in cell-like structures (chemical cells). The results are important not only for biology but also in materials science.
Leah Burrows-Brandeis writes at Futurity:
Turing was the first to offer an explanation of morphogenesis through chemistry. He theorized that identical biological cells differentiate and change shape through a process called intercellular reaction-diffusion.
In this model, a system of chemicals react with each other and diffuse across a space—say between cells in an embryo. These chemical reactions need an inhibitory agent, to suppress the reaction, and an excitatory agent, to activate the reaction. This chemical reaction, diffused across an embryo, will create patterns of chemically different cells.
At Brandeis, Seth Fraden, professor of physics, and Irv Epstein, professor of chemistry, created rings of synthetic, cell-like structures with activating and inhibiting chemical reactions to test Turing’s model.
Just as Turing theorized, the once identical structures—now chemically different—also began to change in size due to osmosis.
Would you like to major in coffee?
UC Davis students may soon be able to study the science behind the beverage. Coffee is the largest food import in the U.S. and 54% of Americans over 18 consume a cup of coffee EVERY day (…35% of those coffee drinkers like their coffee black).
People have been drinking coffee since (approximately) the 15th century, but there isn’t a ton of science involved in the industry. “Coffee tends to be a generational industry, and it’s a nonscientific industry right now. You cannot get a four-year degree or a Ph.D. in coffee right now,” Peter Rogers, a coffee roaster, explains.
The recently founded UC Davis Coffee Center —similar to the school’s Institute for Wine and Food Science— is hoping to eventually offer a major in coffee science. The center is focusing on research topics like:
- Coffee genetics
- Sustainability in coffee growing & waste within the production chain
- Analyzing coffee composition, structure and function
- Coffee as potential prebiotic
- Isolating the factors that create flavor
(Image via Chris McVeigh)
The Polydiversity of Polychaete Worms
Creatures from dreams and nightmares are here. They are real and they are unbelievably beautiful.
From the depths of the cold White Sea to the coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. Some of them were collected recently and they are still undescribed! They’re only a drop in the whole diversity of polychaetes.
SOURCE: Worms Renaissance, 7 March 2014
The word ‘polychaete’
Each body segment of a polychaete worm has a pair of fleshy protrusions called parapodia that bear many bristles, called chaetae, which are made of chitin. Polychaetes are sometimes referred to as bristle worms. [WP]
Posted by darksilenceinsuburbia
"Quack is a pejorative term, disparagingly, albeit sometimes defensively, applied by a member of the establishment, the orthodox, regular, professional, credentialed and accepted class to describe the unorthodox, unlicensed, disapproved member of a fringe or irregular group. It is a term of condemnation employed when one wants to belittle another. Above all, the term has become associated with the sellers of medicines and the marketers of medical systems, those with the "true" method of curing specific ills or, in an earlier day, all the ills of mankind.
While the origins of the term are obscure, the term “quack” probably came from the Dutch Quacksalber, a charlatan, mountebank, empiric or itinerant seller of medicine. It may also have been derived from the sounds made by a duck, the term applied to the hawker of nostrums whose excessive zeal in describing the merits of his or her cure may well have sounds similar to the squawking of a duck. The chatter of the quack, in most cases more like torrent s of words, would have been familiar to both town and rural populations even in the ancient periods, for quacks have long been well known in every society. Over the past four hundred years they have been representative figures in folktales, stories and especially in prints, drawings and political caricatures…” –William H. Helfand, from Quack Quack Quack
1. "Nancy Linton: A faithful representation of her actual appearance & condition after having been cured by the use of Swann’s Panacea", c. 1833, by C Hullmandel (from a drawing by WH Kearney)
2. "The Dance of Death: the Undertaker and the Quack." 1816, by Thomas Rowlandson (from Wellcome Library)
3. "Singular Effects of the Universal Vegetable Pills on a Green Crocer! A Fact!", 1841, by Charles Jameson Grant
4. "Quackery - Medical Minstrel Performing for the Benefit of Their Former Patients - No other Dead-heads Admitted", 1879, by Joseph Keppler - from Puck
5. "The Travelling Quack", 1889, by Tom Merry
‘Rainbow’ on Venus Seen for First Time
by NANCY ATKINSON on MARCH 11, 2014 (Universe Today)
[ABOVE] False colour composite of a ‘glory’ seen on Venus on 24 July 2011. The image is composed of [BELOW] three images at ultraviolet (left,) visible (centre) and near-infrared (right) wavelengths from the Venus Monitoring Camera. The images were taken 10 seconds apart and, due to the motion of the spacecraft, do not overlap perfectly. The glory is 1200 km across, as seen from the spacecraft, 6000 km away. Credit: ESA/MPS/DLR/IDA.
A rainbow-like optical phenomenon known as a ‘glory’ has been imaged for the first time on another planet. It was seen in the atmosphere of our nearest neighbor, Venus by ESA’s Venus Express orbiter.
Rainbows and glories occur when sunlight shines on cloud droplets. While rainbows arch across the sky, glories appear as circular rings of colored concentric rings centered on a bright core.
Read more on universetoday …
gifdrome: Zebra vs Cheetah
Medical Information System Interface
Photos of a Prototype Interactive Touch Screen Application
Animation, Graphic Design, Visual Effects by 2RISE
Aying/ Munich, Germany
SOURCE: Bēhance (February 2014)